Saturday, March 19, 2005

The Story of Purim - Part I: Clothes Make The Slave

“It is only superficial people who do not judge by appearances. The true mystery of the world is the visible, not the invisible.” -- Oscar Wilde

Purim – the holiday that unites opposites. Where forces in conflict are bound together, even as they struggle to tear apart from one another like two powerful magnets forced together with their matching poles touching.

They cast the “Pur” before Haman. Yet, the holiday is not called “Chag HaPur”, but “Chag Purim”. The Festival of “Lots”. Not one die, but a pair of dice.

A dice player is trying to make his number. Which die will win for him? Whichever number he must match, each die can be “correct”, in that each one will turn up a part of that number. Yet the “correct”-ness of each die depends absolutely on the other die coming up with the complementary number. And if it does not? Then which die is the “wrong” one? When the dice fail, which one do we blame? The dice player throws both, so it is not possible to blame loss on either, just as it is not possible to thank either die when he wins. Rather, if the dice are in harmoney, the player wins. If they are not in harmony, there will be a loss.

Every Shesh-Besh player knows the pattern of numbers which come up more, or less, frequently. There is only one way to make a two (1+1), only one way to make a twelve (6+6). But there are two ways to make eleven (5+6, 6+5) and two ways to make three (2+1, 1+2). There are three ways to make ten (5+5, 6+4, 4+6) and three ways to make four (2+2, 3+1, 1+3)… and so on… Still, there are always more ways to lose than to win. The odds are always against the player, and in favor of “the house”.

How do people behave in casinos? With the recent popularity of televised poker matches, we have seen behaviors that seem to be common to large groups of gamblers.

Professional gamblers, like other professional games-players, have superstitions that focus on clothing. There are champion poker players who wear the same shirt / tie / hat / jacket / piece of jewelry / shoes… etc… throughout a tournament, to keep up their streak.

As to the amateurs, what do the casinos offer them to keep them happy? Alcohol.

Is this stretching the point – Purim as a turn at the gaming tables? Purim is a day where we dress up, drink, and are commanded to lose our orientation. By the way, if you have ever visited a casino, there are two things conspicuously absent: clocks and windows. You have no way of knowing where you are.

The Gemara teaches that there are three reasons we do not say Hallel on Purim. One: It took place outside of Eretz Yisrael; two: we read the Megillah, which is itself a form of praise to G-d; three: We remain in Galut – Exile – even after our victory. If we analyze the holidays of Chanukah and Purim, we appear to have chosen the only two times in our history when the Nations failed to wipe us out. Our “victory” consists in not having been wiped from the face of the earth. As it says in Tehillim, “We were like birds trapped in the hunter’s snare. The snare broke and we escaped. Our salvation is with G-d…” If we are going to base our hope for continued existence on the chance that a hunter’s trap may not hold… and yet, so precarious is all human existence.

In order to comprehend the story of the Megillah, we must know the story of Yosef. In order to appreciate the story of Yosef, we must understand the story of Yaakov. No one ever said this was going to be easy!

First, let’s get some of the easier details out of the way.

Who is Achashverosh? It is generally accepted that he is the historical Xerxes (486-465 BCE) the son of Cyrus, Emperor of Persia, etc. Rashi states that Achashverosh is not a hereditary king. The Zohar picks up on this and compares the Pharaoh of the Exodus to Achashverosh, saying that this Pharaoh was, likewise, not of royal blood. The Zohar says that the Pharaoh took the throne after his military victory, similar to Achashverosh who, the Zohar says, was so wealthy that he bought the kingship. One clear similarity is that both were politically paranoid, and permitted the Jews to be used as bait. Other similarities include their constantly referring decisions to their advisors. Rashi tosses out a fascinating – and obvious – clue in his comment on chapter 1, verse 8: “… for thus had the King established on all the great ones of his household…” “…all the great ones of the household…” says Rashi, “Sar ha’ofim, sar hatabachim, sar hamashkim…” the chief baker, the chief cook/butcher, the chief wine steward…” sound familiar? These are the identical Hebrew words the Torah uses in the Yosef narrative, his companions in prison, and Potiphar himself, commander of the prison.

While we are certain that Cyrus was father of Xerxes, Xerxes was not like his father in many ways. Also, assuming Rashi's tradition to be historically accurate, Xerxes may have been a bastard or second-born son, someone not in line for the throne, but who ascended nonetheless after financial and plitical machinations. Foremost for our purposes is the fact that he appears to have interrupted the work on the Beit HaMikdash which his father had put into motion. It seems that the cessation of work on the BHM corresponds to the incident recorded in Ezra 4:6, where a mysterious anonymous message is sent to Xerxes / Achashverosh bringing an evil report about the Jews, whereupon the King suspends the work on the BHM. This may be the seed of the Purim story.

Philo, writing about Yosef’s dreams, takes a detour to tell us that Xerxes was mad. He changed the earth, Philo tells us, building a bridge across the Hellespont, digging artificial lakes on high mountains. Then, says Philo, Xerxes went off the deep end and started shooting arrows at the Sun.

There is an argument in the Gemara as to whether Achashverosh was a Clever King, or a Stupid King. Philo’s story could be cast to support either view. Consistent with the Pairing of Opposites that Purim represents, it would be an interesting exercise to analyze the entire text, first from one perspective, then from the other. But we have other Hamentaschen to fry…

Clothes Make the Man, the Woman, the King, the Queen – Yaakov, to Yosef, to Esther

What is the first reaction recorded in the Torah to the unforeseen descent from the original perfect relationship between humans and G-d? The fall of Adam and Eve? G-d makes them clothing, then sends them out of Eden. If you have a perfect relationship with G-d, you don’t need clothing. (By the way, the serpent is described as being “’arum” – translated with the meaning “cunning". The Hebrew word means “naked”. The root carries the meaning of Transparent. Similarly, the word for "serpent" - "nachash" - is related to the word for brass, "nechoshet" - also meaning Brignt, Shining, Clear, and bearing a parallel meaning of Prophesy; it is the same word used by Yosef when he cautions his brothers that "a man such as I should certainly be able to divine".)

This is clear from the text. After they eat the fruit, Adam hears the voice of G-d, who is strolling in the Garden. How does Adam hear G-d’s voice? Is G-d so enjoying the day that G-d is humming a favorite little ditty? One reason is to show the simple intimacy Adam and Eve and G-d enjoyed. It is possible to catch a hint, a faint flavor of this intimacy in a traditional Orthodox Shtiebel, where everyone is davening with fervor – on one hand, a group of people throwing their spiritual focus together to worship in one voice, at the same time, the total isolation of the individual locked in passionate conversation with G-d.

Upon hearing G-d’s voice, Adam hides. And G-d calls out, “Ayeka?” – “Where are you?” Spelled the same as “Eicha…” the opening word of the Book of Lamentations. And so, Chazal tell us, the seeds of Purim are present at the Creation. Adam says, I was naked. G-d asks: Who told you that you were naked? “Ha-min ha’etz…achalta?” Did you eat from the tree? And Chazal read the word “Ha-min” with different vocalization: “Haman.” Who told you that you were naked? (Or: Who told you that you were like the Serpent?) Haman.

Let’s go forward in time.

How is it that Cham sees the nakedness of his father, Noach? Noach is in his own tent – he has drunk wine. Wine is the revealer of secrets. Chazal tell us, “Nichnas yayin, yotze sod.” – “In goes the wine, out comes Truth.” Noach is naked in his tent. In his tent – not out in public – Noach tries to enter into his direct relationship with G-d. Like Moshe, who speaks with G-d face to face in the Tent, Noach tries to enter into this intimate relationship of innate perfection. For recall, the Torah tells us that Noach was “a perfect man in his generations.” Noach, in his nakedness, returns to state of Adam in Gan Eden. What happens? Along comes Cham and announces his father’s nakedness to the world (his brothers). What is for Noach a spiritual communion is… we don’t know what the reaction of his sons is. Do they think their father is out of control? What is this, in their eyes? Lewdness? Pathetic? Disgusting? People don’t understand what Noach is doing, and we don’t understand either Noach, or his sons’ reaction.

The action of the Purim story actually begins at the outset of Chapter 2 of the Megillah, and ends at the end of Chapter 7. Chapter 2 starts, “After these things, when the King’s anger had cooled,” and chapter 7 ends, “… and the King’s anger cooled.” The same expression is used in Hebrew: “Chamat haMelech…” the King’s “Cham”-ness. (Spelled the same as Noach’s son’s name.) The word “cham” means heat, glow, warmth, and by extension, anger. It also can mean “red” or “spicy”. It is perhaps pushing too hard to link it to alcohol – the image of redness evokes Esau – but it is clear that, at the beginning of chapter 2, the King is emerging from a party that lasted six months… he must have had one heck of a hangover! It is easy to imagine him shaking his head, rubbing his eyes, and asking, “Was I there? Did I have a good time?” “Well,” his advisors tell him, “There is one little trifle, Sire. You had Queen Vashti executed.” Hmmm, thinks the King. Let me try to get my brain around that one…

(All right: the text does not state that Vashti is executed, merely that she is sent away and banned forever from the King's presence. This begs the question of why Esther defied the King's rule and went unbidden to the throne room, but Vashti chose not to. A fascinating subject, but not ours at this time.)

Noach is seeking the relationship that should be his by virtue of his spiritual perfection. But it’s too late. The ability to enter into the direct relationship with G-d is lost from the world, and you can not recapture it by merely taking off your clothing. The world intrudes. The world doesn’t get it. Cham looks at a naked old man and finds it worthy of note. Finds that he must bring the rest of the world in to see.(Noach, Cham, Shem and Japhet at this point constitute half the population of the world.)

What is Yaakov’s story? He creates his own destiny, as do many other figures in Torah. Torah – and traditional Rabbinical Judaism – have embedded within them two concepts that (again, in the spirit of Purim) are really two sides of the same concept. Take a deep breath – you may not like this. These are concepts that surface from time to time, and then are hidden. These are concepts that are nearly explicit in the text of Torah – and yet remain hidden from sight. Concepts that Chazal tell us are surely part of the makeup of G-d’s world. And yet, so many Jews reject them as superstition, as Idol Worship, as anti-Torah.


Karma, and Reincarnation.

Why is Buddhism so attractive to so many Jews in the West? In many ways, Buddhism is Judaism without Halacha. Non-religious Jews in the West often identify themselves quite strongly as being Jewish, and their Jewishness is based in an intellectual and emotive connection to the life that was originally created through Torah – a sort of Torah-based Ethical Humanism. This is Jewishness without Torah, Judaism without G-d. Judaism without Judaism. It is based on Being a Good Person and contains an element of noblesse oblige – that, as Jews, we need to hold ourselves to higher moral standards and Give Back To Society. This is Judaism without Halacha – Torah as a Very Good Book that helped create a Moral Ethical People who Contribute to Society.

People are so afraid of the idea of a total relationship with G-d. Do you notice that Jews don’t talk about G-d? And when we do, we generally feel so uncomfortable that we quickly change the subject. We don’t want to feel like Jesus Freaks – Chas veShalom!

Since we need control over our own environment, people place themselves above Halacha and above religious observance. Which is essentially placing oneself above G-d.

Don’t get me wrong: the Torah insists that we behave with absolute morality at all times. But why not keep Shabbat as well? They are not mutually exclusive. And, even though I wear a yarmulke and Tzitzit, I am not judging you. If you feel judged, it is because you are judging yourself. At most, I am providing the mirror.

“Hester astir panai” says G-d. “I will surely hide my face.” Chazal re-read this statement with different vowels. “Hester Esther panai.” Look at that: Eicha, Haman and Esther, all in the Torah. And what is the duplication of “Hester astir…”? Chazal tell us it is G-d saying: “You are hiding? I am hiding.”

G-d is not hiding G-d’s face from us – we have withdrawn, and G-d is accommodating us. G-d is giving us what we want.


The word Karma means “action”, and the concept of Karma is no different from Newton’s basic principle of Action / Reaction. And there is no human action, no matter how small, that does not throw off a reaction. And the reactions accumulate, so that if we hew to a specific path, it ultimately catapults us in the direction we have taken. Think of Pharaoh, who hardened his heart against us for so long, until suddenly G-d stepped in, and Pharaoh could no longer NOT harden his heart.

Think of G-d and Avram at the Brit Bein HaBetarim – the “Covenant between the pieces”. G-d tells Abram that his descendants will be “Afflicted” – the Hebrew word comes from the root “’oneh” – Ayin, Nun, Heh – “in a land not their own”. G-d does not specify where this will take place. The next thing that occurs is Sarai takes Hagar to task – Hagar the Egyptian – and “afflicts” her, using the same word. Hagar is cast out to die in the desert, and the cycle is set in motion: G-d ordains that some other people shall “’oneh” the Hebrews; Sara is “’oneh” an Egyptian, and our entire experience in Egypt is characterized by that one Hebrew word. The basic phrase of the Passover Haggadah is: “Ha lach ‘anyah” – “This is the bread of Affliction / Poverty…” Same word again.

As to reincarnation, it is expounded upon explicitly by the AriZal, for example. And, in the Sephardic Yom Kippur liturgy, among the litany of “Al Chet” – “For the sins…” are: “For the sins we committed in this incarnation, or in other incarnations,” and “And for the sins for which we deserve to be reincarnated as an inanimate object, or as a life-form incapable of motion, or a life-form incapable of speech, or a life-form capable of speech…” I’m not making any of this up.

By the way: there is a compelling inner logic to the concept of Karma / Reincarnation – and they are truly two sides of the same coin. If you will, Karma is the Revealed aspect, Reincarnation is the Hidden aspect. If you practice sitting silent meditation consistently over time, your mind will come to the realization and experience and acceptance of the notion of multiple lives on its own. If Torah is Revealed Truth, Buddhism is Discovered Truth. Funny how they both arrive at the same conclusions.

But don’t be fooled by superficial similarities. Not to denigrate Buddhism – many of you know that I have practiced Buddhist meditation for many years, and that I was blessed to be taught by one of the outstanding Buddhist teachers of our time, Diane Shainberg – Zichronah leVrachah – for the last years of her life. There are profound truths in Buddhism, and its practice has brought me manifold blessings. But I am a Jew. We must take from all that is true, and we must certainly acknowledge Truth wherever it is found. But let us not fall into the anti-intellectual trap of stating publicly that All Religions Are The Same. They are not.

All human behavior is motivated by certain – and few – key fundamentals. All people are alike in that we share the same handful of motivations, of innate aspects of our makeup. And, as our fundamental internal needs are generally in conflict, we seek outlets and mechanisms for resolution of our inner conflicts.

It is these inner conflicts that are truly the same, no matter where human beings are found. And each society has different accepted modes of behavior associated with these inner needs and drives.

Among the inner conflicting needs are, for example: The need for absolute certainty, paired with the need for variety. People crave stable love relationships – but not boring ones. Go figure. But how people work out these dilemmas in culturally determined modes of behavior, of which religion is one. And one’s G-d is a Defining Factor, just as is one’s language, ethnicity, skin color, clan, village, and totem animal. We do not all worship the same god. What we do have in common is that we all seek to address the same inner conflicts.

Truly, there is no more radical political statement than to announce adherence to one’s own god.

If you recall the Mike Tyson / Evander Holyfield bout. Holyfield won a hard-fought – and well-deserved – decision. After the match, reporters were shoving microphones in Holyfield’s face and asking him to comment on the fight. Holyfield was off on a tear – for something like half an hour he ranted, with a passionate gleam in his eye and triumph in his voice, that his victory had proven that Jesus was stronger than Allah. “My god defeated his god!” Holyfield shouted again and again, “Jesus is stronger than Allah! My god is stronger than his god!”

Make no mistake: It is in worshiping our own gods that we retain our identity.

And speaking of retaining one’s identity… I bet you thought we’d never get back to the story of Purim.

OK, so let’s finish up our little detour through Sefer Bereshit – the Book of Genesis.

Yaakov’s mother tells him to steal his brother’s garment and, with the help of the skin of a slaughtered goat, he fools his father into believing he is Esau. Yaakov then receives the bad news: his brother wants to kill him. So he high-tails it out of town. To bring it full circle: the Midrash states that the garment Yaakov stole from Esau was the same garment G-d had provided to Adam when he was expelled from the Garden – that Nimrod had owned, that Esau slew Nimrod to recapture, that Yaakov took because it was actually intended for him, but the act of theft must nonetheless be punished.

At the border, when he is about to leave the Land of Canaan, he meets up with G-d. G-d promises Yaakov that G-d will be with him, and will return him to this earth – strikingly, G-d uses the word “adamah” – earth – rather than “aretz” – “land’. And indeed, Yaakov only returns to the earth of Canaan, for he does not return until after his death, when Yosef brings his body back for burial.

Yaakov, in a widely misconstrued passage, says “If you will be with me, and if you will give me clothing to wear and food to eat, and you will return me safely to my father’s house, then you will be my god…” This is often taken as Yaakov, a Chutzpaniak, bargaining with G-d. I believe it is rather a desperate plea, on a par with the anguish expressed by Cain. Yaakov identifies the two fundamental human needs – food and clothing – that are the instruments of his exile. He stole his brother’s clothing, and he prepared a false meal (goats, not venison) for his father in order to steal the blessing of the firstborn. Now, in his recognition and remorse, he realizes that he will be cursed by these very things all his days, and he begs G-d to overturn the decree. But the Torah definitely believes in eternal justice – you might not like it if I use the word Karma, but, as they say in the Neighborhood: What goes around, comes around. And Yaakov remains cursed by these two things, a curse that is not worked out until, perhaps, the holiday of Purim.


How can it be that Yosef’s brothers do not recognize him when they stand before him in Egypt? The obvious answer is: because he is not wearing his coat. Yaakov took a special garment and, by its use, singled out Yosef. Ah, Yaakov! You learned nothing from your own ordeal!

Yosef’s brothers hate him, because of the garment – just as Yaakov’s brother hated him because of a stolen garment. And Yosef’s garment is, in effect, stolen, for it is a mantle of primogeniture – and Yosef is the first son, but of the last mother, for Yaakov’s three other wives have all had children before her.

Yosef’s brothers take the coat, slaughter a goat, and bring the garment to Yaakov. “Recognize this!” they demand of their father.

And Yaakov’s curse continues, because there is famine – so he is, in fact, cursed by both clothing and food – and Yaakov’s sons end up in Egypt, in exile, as does Yaakov himself, who returned once to his father’s house, as he had begged of G-d, but now loses that connection forever, only to be brought back after death.

Yosef, meanwhile, is in Potiphar’s house in Egypt, where his mistress tears off his garment, which results in his being thrown into prison where he almost dies. Finally, on a chance encounter between the chief baker, the chief butcher and the chief wine steward (whom Rashi drags into the Megillah), Yosef – in a scene reminiscent of Esther being prepared in the harem – is bathed, is shaved (the Egyptians shaved the entire body, including pubic hair, arms and legs, and eyebrows – Yosef ends up looking like a pre-pubescent girl, a scene that very closely parallels Esther’s preparations to be brought to Achashverosh) and… is dressed in new clothing. Then he is brought before Pharaoh, who brings him into his inner circle, gives him special jewelry – actually a golden collar which appears to be on a leash – and renames him Tzafnat-Paneach, a woman’s name which may mean “Beautiful Secret Concubine”.

If you need further proof that Yosef is viewed as a woman, the text uses the expression “Yifat toar” – “beautiful of form” to describe Yosef. This same expression is also used of Rachel, Yosef’s mother, of Vashti, and of Esther. Rashi tells us that Poti-phera, Yosef’s father-in-law, desired Yosef, but when Pharaoh took him, Poti-phera realized that he would never have Yosef for his own and castrated himself in despair.

To finish up: Yosef’s brothers do not recognize him, because he is not wearing his coat. When he finally reveals himself, he sends them back to get their father. Before sending them along, he gives each of them a new suit of clothing, but to Binyamin, his full brother, he gives five outfits. Some people never learn… (Sidebar: the transformation of Yehudah into the leader of the family, and then the leader of Israel, is through his relationship with Tamar. Tamar sets him up and teaches him the moral lesson by means of a goat and Yehuda’s own garment. There they are again: Yaakov’s family can’t escape the destiny of the goat and the coat…)

In chapter 4, Mordechai finally engages Esther’s cooperation by showing up at the King’s Gate dressed in sackcloth – the text tells us this is specifically prohibited. Esther quickly sends word to him to stop, and he replies that he will not change his garments until she intercedes to save their people. Esther sends him a change of clothing, but he rejects them. Finally, Esther girds herself, both figuratively and literally. At the beginning of chapter 5, she puts on her royal garments and risks death by appearing unbidden in the royal courtyard. But Achashverosh is pleased to see her.

That night, Achashverosh can’t sleep. When he commands that the Book Of Chronicles be read to him, he is reminded that Mordechai saved his life. His response is to ask Haman how such a man should be honored.

Haman, thinking the King means Haman himself, suggests that such a man should be dressed in the King’s own garments and paraded through the streets on the King’s own horse and loud cries be made before him – a parallel to Yosef in Pharaoh’s chariot being paraded triumphantly through the streets of Egypt. And so Mordechai is taken from his place in the King’s Gate and dressed in the King’s garments and paraded about.

Finally, in chapter 8, starting at verse 15, we see Mordechai dressed in royal attire – the components of which are the same as those Achashverosh showed off at the beginning of chapter 1 – now, dressed as the Viceroy, Mordechai is literally “in-vest-ed” with the power to change events. Mordechai, by the way, is of the tribe of Binyamin. Moreover, a direct descendant of the family of King Shaul. By slaying Haman – the descendant of King Agag – Mordechai has redeemed the House of Shaul; by striding out into the open wearing the five garments of the Cohen Gadol, so the gemara states, Mordechai has closed the circle on the five garments given by Yosef to his brother Binyamin.

And, to repeat, the King, whose story opens and closes with the expression “his heatedness (in Hebrew, “Cham”) abated” is put at ease, now that everyone is finally properly dressed – Esther is clad in the garments of the Queen, having definitively replaced Vashti; Mordechai is dressed as the Viceroy, having replaced haman; and Achashverosh still wears the crown.

It is a beautiful closure, a neat package. “G-d’s in His heaven, all’s right with the world.”

Except that Achashverosh is still king. Like Yosef, who becomes the second most powerful man in Egypt, Esther’s and Mordechai’s power emanates from Achashverosh. When he needs to travel to Canaan to bury his father, Yosef discovers the immense gulf between his own power and that wielded by Pharaoh. We are reminded that Yosef was brought down as a slave. For all his power, the traces of slavery cling to him.

But Pharaoh can not consolidate his power without Yosef. They need each other, just as each die needs the other to make the number. Achashverosh needs Esther and Mordechai every bit as much as they need him. It is an uncomfortable symbiosis between predator and bait. Like our dice player at the beginning of this tale, Mordechai may make his number over and over again. Ultimately, though, the House always wins.

The oltimate reason that the Megillah is included in the canon may be because, as the Gemara tells us, King Cyrus, the son of Achashverosh and Esther, permitted the Jews to return to Yerushalaim and complete the construction of the Beit HaMikdash. And Mordechai, the Mishna tells us, returns and officiates in the rebuilt BHM under the name Petachyah - "G-d opens / reveals". Mordechai is put in charge of the bird sacrifices, a particularly difficult job. The mishna says it is because he speaks all seventy languages. The question that arises is: but we know Mordechai spoke seventy languages, because he was from the Sanhedrin. Is it possible that, as the gemara in Yoma makes clear, the level of knowledge had deteriorated? The Kohen Gadol was kept awake on the eve of Yom Kippur by being read to. Among the texts were the book of Daniel - a text primarily written in Aramaic - the implication being that the Kohen Gadol could not be expected to be of such erudition to understand Hebrew. He was taught to mouthe the prayers, even if he did not understand what he was saying. This is the representative of the Jewish People.

Similarly, it may be that Mordechai was the one remaining member of the Sanhedrin who actually had the original knowledge.

If nothing else, Mordechai emerges from the Palace clad as Kohen Gadol, but acting as the viceroy of the Persian empire. He will repartiate these garments to their homeland and return them to their intended use.

Until the next turning of the wheel...

yours for a better world

simchat purim!


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